Pull Requests

  • Submit Pull Requests against the master branch.
  • Provide a good description of what you’re doing and why.
  • Provide tests that cover your changes and try to run the tests locally first.

Example. Assuming you set up GitHub account, forked pip repository from to your own page via web interface, and your fork is located at

$ git clone
$ cd pip
# ...
$ git diff
$ git add <modified> ...
$ git status
$ git commit

You may reference relevant issues in commit messages (like #1259) to make GitHub link issues and commits together, and with phrase like “fixes #1259” you can even close relevant issues automatically. Now push the changes to your fork:

$ git push

Open Pull Requests page at and click “New pull request”. That’s it.

Automated Testing

All pull requests and merges to ‘master’ branch are tested in Travis based on our .travis.yml file.

Usually, a link to your specific travis build appears in pull requests, but if not, you can find it on our travis pull requests page

The only way to trigger Travis to run again for a pull request, is to submit another change to the pull branch.

We also have Jenkins CI that runs regularly for certain python versions on windows and centos.

Running tests

OS Requirements: subversion, bazaar, git, and mercurial.

Python Requirements: tox or pytest, virtualenv, scripttest, and mock

Ways to run the tests locally:

$ tox -e py33           # The preferred way to run the tests, can use pyNN to
                        # run for a particular version or leave off the -e to
                        # run for all versions.
$ python test  # Using the setuptools test plugin
$ py.test               # Using py.test directly
$ tox                   # Using tox against pip's tox.ini

If you are missing one of the VCS tools, you can tell py.test to skip it:

$ py.test -k 'not bzr'
$ py.test -k 'not svn'

Getting Involved

The pip project welcomes help in the following ways:

  • Making Pull Requests for code, tests, or docs.
  • Commenting on open issues and pull requests.
  • Helping to answer questions on the mailing list.

If you want to become an official maintainer, start by helping out.

Later, when you think you’re ready, get in touch with one of the maintainers, and they will initiate a vote.

Adding a NEWS Entry

The NEWS.rst file is managed using towncrier and all non trivial changes must be accompanied by a news entry.

To add an entry to the news file, first you need to have created an issue describing the change you want to make. A Pull Request itself may function as such, but it is preferred to have a dedicated issue (for example, in case the PR ends up rejected due to code quality reasons).

Once you have an issue or pull request, you take the number and you create a file inside of the news/ directory named after that issue number with an extension of removal, feature, bugfix, or doc. Thus if your issue or PR number is 1234 and this change is fixing a bug, then you would create a file news/1234.bugfix. PRs can span multiple categories by creating multiple files (for instance, if you added a feature and deprecated/removed the old feature at the same time, you would create news/NNNN.feature and news/NNNN.removal). Likewise if a PR touches multiple issues/PRs you may create a file for each of them with the exact same contents and Towncrier will deduplicate them.

The contents of this file are reStructuredText formatted text that will be used as the content of the news file entry. You do not need to reference the issue or PR numbers here as towncrier will automatically add a reference to all of the affected issues when rendering the news file.

A trivial change is anything that does not warrant an entry in the news file. Some examples are: Code refactors that don’t change anything as far as the public is concerned, typo fixes, white space modification, etc. To mark a PR as trivial a contributor simply needs to add a randomly named, empty file to the news/ directory with the extension of .trivial. If you are on a POSIX like operating system, one can be added by running touch news/$(uuidgen).trivial. Core committers may also add a “trivial” label to the PR which will accomplish the same thing.

Upgrading, removing, or adding a new vendored library gets a special mention using a news/<library>.vendor file. This is in addition to any features, bugfixes, or other kinds of news that pulling in this library may have. This uses the library name as the key so that updating the same library twice doesn’t produce two news file entries.

Release Process

  1. On the current pip master branch, generate a new AUTHORS.txt by running invoke generate.authors and commit the results.
  2. On the current pip master branch, make a new commit which bumps the version in pip/ to the release version and adjust the CHANGES.txt file to reflect the current date.
  3. On the current pip master branch, generate a new NEWS.rst by running invoke and commit the results.
  4. Create a signed tag of the master branch of the form X.Y.Z using the command git tag -s X.Y.Z.
  5. Checkout the tag using git checkout X.Y.Z and create the distribution files using python sdist bdist_wheel.
  6. Upload the distribution files to PyPI using twine (twine upload -s dist/*). The upload should include GPG signatures of the distribution files.
  7. Push all of the changes.
  8. Regenerate the script by running invoke generate.installer in the get-pip repository, and committing the results.

Creating a Bugfix Release

Sometimes we need to release a bugfix release of the form X.Y.Z+1. In order to create one of these the changes should already be merged into the master branch.

  1. Create a new release/X.Y.Z+1 branch off of the X.Y.Z tag using the command git checkout -b release/X.Y.Z+1 X.Y.Z.
  2. Cherry pick the fixed commits off of the master branch, fixing any conflicts and moving any changelog entries from the development version’s changelog section to the X.Y.Z+1 section.
  3. Push the release/X.Y.Z+1 branch to github and submit a PR for it against the master branch and wait for the tests to run.
  4. Once tests run, merge the release/X.Y.Z+1 branch into master, and follow the above release process starting with step 4.